Article "The End of the Khalifat Rashidah"
Islam brought peace, brotherhood and anti-discrimination. Clans, that were previously in rivalry, were united, the rights of women were finally guarded and an Arab was nothing more worse than an Ethiopian. The rule of the Prophet after his migration to Madinah was extremely successful by the permission of Allah.
After the death of our beloved Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE, the Khilaafat Raashidah lasted for 30 years as the Prophet had said: “The Caliphate of Prophecy will last thirty years; then Allah will give the Kingdom of His Kingdom to anyone He wills.”
The first kingdom after the Caliphate of Prophecy was given to Banu Umayyah which lasted for about 90 years in Damascus, starting with the rule of Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan in 661 CE and ending with the rule of Marwan II. in 750 CE. As one of the members of the Umayyad house established the Umayyad rule in Spain in 756 CE, it continued there for several centuries until it eventually declined in the year 1236 CE.
There were some factors which led to the establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty which will be elaborated in short in this research paper.
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